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G is often silent before m, n, h, as in phlegm, gnat, reign, sign, light. Semi-vowels are those consonants which do not entirely obstruct the voice, bat whose sounds may be continued at pleasure, thus partaking of the nature of vowels.
In the formation of this letter, nothing is required but the sudden closingof the mouth, and stop- ping the vowel sound; or the sound may be articulated by the sudden open- ing of the lips, in order to emit the compressed sound of the vowel. Now if, instead of simply expressing the vowel sound by opening the lips, in saying, for example, pa, we shall begin to form a guttural sound, the posi- tion being still preserved ; then, on the opening the lips, we shall pronounce the syllable ba. The guttural sound is produced by a compt ession of the larynx, or windpipe, and is that kind of murmur, as Bishop W ilk ins expresses it, which is heard in the throat, before the breath is emitted with the vocal sound. B, therefore, though justly considered as a mute, is not a perfect mute. When a letter is to be silent, the same is left out in the representation of the sounds to be given to each syllable; the silent e only is often characterised by being an Italic e at the end of a syllable, instead of being a Roman e. thfcn', thus' V .«v v&'st, ha've f ks exercise X • • • -^ gz exert, exist* t • initial • z xenophon Xt • • • before ion kssh mix'titfn 2 . K is silent before n, in the same syllable, as in knave, knot. N is silent after m in the same syllable, as in hymn, condemn.— -The lettei n, after e or o contracted, is uttered somewhat through the nose, so that its sound becomes obscure, as in heav'n, person, for heaven, person. Editor, [ xi 1 the mouth, or relative position of the organs of speech, so that the vowel sound is lost by articulation, as in pronouncing the syllable or. I he first is the application of the lips to each other, so as to close the mouth. and m In the second position, the under lip is ai plied to the fore teeth of the upr er jaw; and in this manner we pronounce the consonant standi;. — There aie, however, many words in which the i actually forms a syllable of its own before another vowel, though that syllable be a very short one ; and it will generally form such a syllable when the i is preceded by bl t cl, dl,&c. I « J In order to render this dictionary moie useful to those, who only make occa- sional eference to works of this nature, as well as to assist the student, th« preceding scheme is exhibited at the top of e^eh page, which will save the reader the trouble and inconvenience of turning to this part of the book, and forms & key which may be consulted with facility. In the first position we have three letters, of which the most simple, and indeed the only articularor, being absolutely mute, is p.
C is silent before the sound of k, and in a few other instances : as in ttick, sack, muscle. H is often silent when initial, and when between £ mute and final t, as in honour, sight. Some of these have been softened in the present edition, whilst others have been retained; for which we can only assign the general reason in our preface. , In pronouncing the consonants, there are five distinguishable portions of the organs.
, ra'z6r 1 zh azure B is silent before t or after m ; as in debt , dumb. Gh is often silent before t, and at the end of words or syllables, as in light, fo'gh, &c. The nature of these consonants I proceed briefly to explain, A vowel sound may be continued at pleasure, or it may be terminated, either by discontinuing the vocal effort, in which case it is not articulated by any con- sonant, as in pronouncing the vowel o; or by changing the conformation of • Opinions vary about this sound of x in several words, some contending for the softer sound of ks, whilst others, from a provincial partiality in many cases, at least, espouse the harder sound of gz.
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A GENERAL 7 / I PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY; Shewing at one View the )RTHOGRAPHY, ACCENTUATION, EXPLANATION AND f&ttmwmatiott OF ALL THE PUREST AND MOST APPROVED TERMS In the ENGLISH LANGUAGE, According to the present Practice of THE MOST EMINENT LEXICOGRAPHERS AND PHILOLOGISTS, BY WILLIAM ENFIELD, M. H LUTHOR OF THE ELEMENTS OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, y long . To produce the diphthong ou' or b\v', it is necessary that there should be the greatest aperture of the mouth, as if it were about to form the sound a'; but before that sound is comple ed, the organs are to change to the position of pro- nouncing 6 (or u), by a rapid motion of the under jaw towards the upper, and pro- truding the lips in the form of sounding 6 (or u), at the same time stopping tne voice short ; and thus, as in the diphthong of, by having neither the sound of the former or latter letter completed, there arises, from the coalescence of the two, a third sound different from both, which is the diphthong ou'or ow'. Here again the absence of the accent shortens the sound a little. lest, where that si ent e serves to prolong the syllable, the absence of this final e should de- ceive ihe eye. It is to be observed also, that a vowel maybe articulated, not only by being terminated by a consonant, as in the example now given, but likewise by introducing the sound with that position of the organs, by which it had, in the former case, been terminated, as in pronouncing the syllable ro. The third position is, when the tongue is applied to the fore teeth ; and thus we pronounce th.
try, rye [ viii ] 01 or 0Y Marked Eramplei, &i btttl, point »y b$ty,j6y OU or OW 8ft 8fit, pouch 8w 5wl, b8wl w Marked Example* w ••••••• • w6, wo WH hw whirf, whig h •••'.... THE reader will notice that the a marked short, thus K, has its utterance lengthened by having the accent placed immediately after it — as in sha'rp, bath, a'ss,&c. This distinc- tion should be particularly noted by the consultor of this work- In sounding i open your mouth as wide as if you were going to pronounce the broad, obscure, and guttural a, and meant to sound that vowel ; but on the first effort of the voice for that purpose, check its progress by a sudden motion of the under jaw towards the upper, stopping it in that situation iu which the slender sound lis formed, and then instantly cutting off all sound. ', differs from that of I only in this, that the first vowel a' is distinctly heard before it unites with the latter vowel ! Oftentimes y without any mark over it, because its sound gen'ly slides into that of the next vowel, will he found in this dictionary, as in Sheridan's quarto. In the fourth position we apply the fore part of the tongue to the fore part of the palate; and by this application we pronounce the letters t y d, s, z, r, I, n.
the a is sensibly longer than in 8sh', hat', glad', &c. Thus as the sound of a is not completed, nor the sound of I continued, there results frorr the union of the two a third sound or diphthong which has no re- semblance to either, and yet is a compound of both. To form the diphthong ol' or of % it is necessary to pronounce the full sound of a\ dwelling some time on that vowel before the sound is intercepted by the motion of the under jaw to the position of forming the slender sound 5. From this it will be inferred, that this y does not form of itself a syllable : for instance in grammarian, marked gram-ma ry an, one is given to understand that the sound of the word consists only of three syllables from the i being changed into a coalescing.^. The fifth position is, when the middle part of the tongue is applied to the palate, and thus we pronounce /c, the hard sound of g, (as in go) sh, J, and ng.